Wednesday, February 25, 2009

History of textile machinery

Textile industry its evolution and progress forms an integral part of the history of textile machinery. Since the dawn of civilization, clothing was one of the man's primary needs. This led to the spinning of fiber into yarn and the cloth weaving which finally resulted in innovation of new technologies for textile industries.

The first textile machinery used was the spinning wheel. It first developed in India and then in 14 th century it reached Europe.

Loom is ancient in origin and the modern invention to increase its skill was the flying shuttle which John Kay patented in 1733.

The initial enhancement in the early spinning machines took place in in 1737 when Lewis Paul and John Wyatt discovered the roller method of spinning jenny and water frame by Samuel Crompton in 1779.

Various Textile process machineries
• Cloth finishing machines
Knitting machines
• Fabric seaming machineries
Crochet machines
• Lace making machines
• Label making machines
Quilting machines
• Textile finishing machines
• Textile sourcing machines
Textile spinning machines
• Textile winding machines
• Textile edge control device
• Thread winding machines
• Tufting machines
• Weaving machines
• Zipper making machines
• Woolen mill machines

Various Textile working machineries and equipments and accessories
• Applique scaling machines
• Attaching machines
• Cloth measuring machines
• Cloth cutting machines
Embroidery machinery
• Garment machinery
• Industrial sewing machine
• Laundry dryers
• Monogramming machines
• Textile bleaching machines
• Textile folding machine
• Textile trimmers machine

Uses of Textile Machineries

It is primarily used in cotton mill, covering plants, wool mill, garment factory; man made factories of fur and trades goods inspection units for the entire length of fabric rolling. It is especially beneficial for inspecting and rolling export fabrics.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

How to tie-dye

Tie-dyed clothing first became popular in the 1960’s. Bright colors, an unlimited variety of patterns and color combinations, and the ease with which the average person can create tie-dyes contribute to its enduring appeal. Making tie-dyes is a very simple process and is very fun. All you need is a piece of fabric (or clothing, preferably white), dye, and fasteners to keep the dye from penetrating and to create patterns.

The easiest material for tie-dyeing is 100%, or at least 80% cotton; synthetic materials may not retain the dye evenly, but it’s worth trying. What dye should you use? It depends on the fabric, but since cotton materials are recommended for the beginner, choose a fiber-reactive dye such as “Procion MX,” which is available at some craft stores or by mail order. RIT and other fabric dyes commonly available in grocery stores aren’t recommended unless you plan to use only one color and don’t want a deep shade. Squeeze bottles are helpful for application. These can be ordered along with the dye, or you can use plastic condiment bottles. A pair of disposable latex gloves will come in handy as well because the dye will stain your skin. For the ties, you can use a number of things such as rubber bands, string, nylon cable ties, or anything that will hold firmly in place. Newspapers or other covering materials are useful for protecting the surface where you apply the dye and lay the finished fabric to dry.

First, wash the material to remove any chemicals that may be in the fabric; if this step is skipped, the dye may not penetrate well. Dry the material completely before dyeing. When the fabric is dry, you can begin tying it. There are several “standard” patterns used for tie-dye, including:

1. Spiral: Determine where you want the center of your spiral, and hold the fabric in that spot. Twist the fabric into a point, adding ties along the length of the “cone.”

2. “V” Pattern: Fold the fabric in half and starting at one corner, fold the fabric in even segments back and forth accordion style. Add fasteners as you go.

3. Concentric circles: Same as the spiral, but don’t twist the fabric.

4. Stripes: Roll the fabric into a tube, and fasten ties along the length.

Any number of other patterns can be created; use your imagination. You could try sewing the fabric with a loose basting stitch and pulling the thread tight. Fold the garment into different shapes before tying. Be creative: the most interesting results come from using many fasteners and keeping relatively consistent.

Now that the material is all scrunched up and tied, the next step is to add the dye. Be sure to use enough dye to fully saturate the material, including inside the folds, unless you intend to leave white space. Choose colors that work well together, according to the color wheel. Opposite colors on the wheel (red-green, blue-yellow, orange-purple, etc.) will tend to look muddy where the two colors meet.

When finished with the dyeing process, allow the fabric to dry completely before removing the fasteners. This can take quite some time. Allow at least four hours if the material will be dried in the sun on a hot day, but it will often be necessary to let the fabric bundle dry overnight. Do not attempt to dry it in your dryer! When it’s totally dry, remove the ties and admire your artwork. You’re not done, though because the material must be washed thoroughly in cold water. Don’t use soap; you may wish to rinse it several times before washing it in a machine. After each wash, squeeze the material to see if any dye is released. If dye is released, wash it again!

Monday, February 23, 2009

Textile Asia 2009 Exhibition' begins from April 5 in Karachi

Textile Asia Exhibition 18/21 March - Karachi 2007, Pakistan

The International Textile Asia 2009 Exhibition, one of the most promising and enduring Event to be held for the 5th successive year at the Karachi Expo Centre from 05 - 08 April 2009 is the official event of the Federal Ministry of Textile Industry.

The event is being organized at the most opportune time when the government is looking forward to modernize and upgrade the textile sector of the country for better quality products and enhanced productivity.

The exhibition aims to focus on the immense buying selling potential of textile & garment machinery, accessories, raw material supplies, chemicals and allied services under one roof.

Cotton is the cash crop of Pakistan. The quality of cotton and cotton related products of Pakistan are unmatched in the international markets. The ever-growing textile industry of the country has shown consistent expansion and stability over the last many years.

The exports of textile and textile products of Pakistan have shown a significant increase in the recent years. The government has offered various incentives for the industry’s up gradation and modernization.

Pakistan is at the center of a rapidly developing textile & garments manufacturing region. Apart from fulfilling its local requirements, Pakistan has emerged as the textile hub of the region.

There exists a strong political will to modernize the textile sector and there is an increasing demand for compliance with ISO and other international quality certifications and standards.

As the textile industry of Pakistan being is in the midst of industrial up gradation and the businessmen are seeking newer solutions to bring more efficiency in their production systems.

Therefore, the pioneer of grasping this opportunity will be the most successful business organization in Pakistan as none of the local industry can cater this tall order.

National organizations will enjoy the benefit of globalization and will witness more joint ventures and collaborations between local and international brands.

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Chenille Embroidery Machines

Historically, chenille embroidery has had many applications in decorating fabrics. From delicate work of lace to commonly recognized emblems and letters sewn on letterman’s jackets, chenille is that form of embroidery which is recognized by almost all. Shifting from hand stitched patterns, the chenille embroidery became industrialized with the lockstitch sewing machine. These machines could produce both - chenille stitches, also known as moss stitches, and chain stitches by using only one thread for both types of stitches. Variations of these machines were developed for taping, cording and sequins as well as machines with two needles for four thread stitching. All these machines still required skilled manual labor.

With growing demands, the chenille embroidery machines manufacturers went on to support research for developing such machines that could mass produce and that required lesser skills. The efforts resulted in production of chenille machines with various mechanical functions controlled by pulse motors. Looper drive, Z-axis drive (needle and looper synchronization), and ATH (automatic thread trimming) – all these functions were driven by pulse motors in the new electronic chenille machines. Recent developments in the field of digitized software for embroidery market, certain very sophisticated and easy to use software for chenille work have been introduced. Electronic machines and software combined, are at work to satisfy the growing demands of the customers who want very fine works of embroidery.

Quilting - Machine Quilting and Hand Quilting

leather sewing machine, witch is able to sew in any direction, used for quilting.

Quilting is a sewing method done either by hand, by sewing machine, or by a longarm quilting system. The process uses a needle and thread to join two or more layers of material together to make a quilt. Typical quilting is done with three layers: the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and backing material. The quilter's hand or sewing machine passes the needle and thread through all layers and then brings the needle back up. The process is repeated across the entire piece where quilting is wanted. A straight or running stitch is commonly used and these stitches can be purely functional or decorative and elaborate. Quilting is done on bed spreads, art quilt wall hangings, clothing, and a variety of textile products.

For many quilters, machine quilting is a way to quilt those tops that seem to go together faster than they can be hand quilted. For others, machine quilting is a means of self expression. Machine quilting can range from an almost invisible stitch outlining the quilt blocks to a combination of threads and stitches creating a one of a kind work of art and everything in beween.
All machine quilting falls into one of two catagories, machine guided (feeddogs up) or free motion (feeddogs dropped or covered). Machine guided quilting is used for straight and slightly curved lines. Free motion quilting is used for all other patterns such as feathered stars and stippling. But there are no absolute rules. Some quilters like to use free motion quilting for all their patterns including those made with straight lines while other quilters prefer using the even stitches of machine guided quilts for making feathered wreaths and other similar patterns.
With a few special feet, almost any sewing machine can be used for machine quilting. With a little practice, any quilter can master the art of machine quilting.
Tips for Machine Quilting
  • Trace the quilting design on to light weight paper. Pin the paper to the quilt and sew on the lines, then tear away the paper. Also try tracing the design on to freezer paper and pressing the paper into place.
  • Place a card table next to the sewing machine table to help hold the quilt.
  • Use a straight stitch needle plate on the machine to prevent the quilt from being pulled into the throat plate slot and puckering.
  • Use a walking foot for straight lines. It will prevent the quilt back from shifting.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Embroidery Machine

An embroidery machine running a design on a cap

Today, Embroidery means adding dollar value to garments by embellishing them with names, corporate logos and sports symbols, to name a few. Embroidery is more than fashion or trend. It has been a form of class distinction since the days of the Egyptian Pharoahs.

An embroidery machine is used to automatically create a design from a pre-made pattern that is input into the machine. Most embroidery machines used by professionals and hobbyists today are driven by computers that read digitized embroidery files created by special software.

The artwork for embroidery design is entered into the computer. The computer transfers the robotics instructions necessary for stitching the design to the embroidery machine. The machine operator places the item, such as a sweatshirt or ball cap on the machine with a holder or hoop. The operator also chooses the colors of thread appropriate to the design. Once the "set up" has been performed, stitching may begin by pressing the "Start" button on the machine. It will precisely and efficiently stitch the design. A typical logo on a ball cap may take five minutes or so to stitch, roughly a dozen caps an hour.


Sequins are disk-shaped beads used for decorative purposes. They are available in a wide variety of colors and geometrical shapes. Sequins are commonly used on clothing, jewelry, bags and other accessories. Large sequins, fastened only at the top, have been used on billboards and other signage, particularly prior to the development of lighted and neon signs. Signs made with sequins were called schmaltz, as were the sequins themselves in that context.

Although coins are still used as sequins in some cultures, modern sequins tend to be made of plastic. They may also be referred to as spangles, paillettes, or diamantes. Paillettes themselves are commonly very large and flat. Sequins may be stitched flat to the fabric, so that they do not move, and are less likely to fall off; or they may be stitched at only one point, so that they dangle and move easily, to catch more light. Some sequins are made with facets, to increase their reflective ability.

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Antique Sock Knitting Machine

Antique Sock Knitting Machine

In the 19th century, virtually every nation held a patent for a sock knitting machine. Several nations manufactured circular sock knitting machines which were a rage in those times. Canadian, Dutch, Scottish and English models of these sock knitting machines were particularly innovative. In the 20th century, a German manufacturer came up with a sock knitting machine that had 42 slot ribber dials and 84 slot cylinders.

Today, the trend of sock knitting machines is widespread. The machine knits socks way faster than what one could knit by hand. Not many brands manufacture these machines today. As a result, antique machines ought to be retailed. These machines have an old world charm that entices all.

Wooden Shoe Machine

A wooden shoe machine in Netherlands

Wooden shoe making machine

Since the end of the middle ages are wooden shoes worn in many parts of Europe. Now it's mainly worn in the Netherlands. However, not many people wear those things. At many jobs, the wooden shoes are still used. It's also the famous souvenir for the foreign tourists. That's also why the most of the three million wooden shoes, which are made every year, are for the tourists.

The wood which is used for the wooden shoes, is poplar-wood. It has the advantage that it's rather long-wearing, so the wooden shoes will wear well.

In the past, the wooden shoes were hand-made, there were thousands of 'clog-makers' in the Netherlands. Since around 1950, it's possible to make wooden shoes with the machine.

The most of the work is taken over by shoe machines, but there are many things like before 1950. Of course, the good kind of wood, which is needed for a good quality wooden shoe. The tree has to be chopped immediately, and conveyed to the factory. Just like the clog-maker does, the stem will be divided into some parts. They do that with their hands, but almost everything which is left, can be done by shoe machines.

In special drying-rooms, the wooden shoes will be dried. But they have an extra problem now, which isn't there if it's hand-made. Sometimes, one wooden shoe shrinks more than the other from that pair. Because after the shrinking, they will be scoured, and then you got a pair with two different sizes. The shoe machines are so good now, that the wooden shoes get the same size.

If everything is in the factory, then you can make 20,000 wooden shoes a month if there are ten employees, so that will be 240,000 a year.


Using two shuttles of alternating colors, the weaving has begun to show the design of the shadow weave pattern.

A shuttle is a tool designed to neatly and compactly store weft yarn while weaving. Shuttles are thrown or passed back and forth through the shed, between the yarn threads of the warp in order to weave in the weft. Shuttles are often made of wood from the Flowering Dogwood, because it is so hard, resists splintering, and can be polished to a very smooth finish.Originally shuttles were passed back and forth by hand. However, John Kay invented a loom in 1733 that incorporated a flying shuttle. This shuttle could be thrown through the warp, which allowed much wider cloth to be woven much more quickly and made the development of machine looms much simpler.

Monday, February 16, 2009

Spinning Machine --From Hand to Automatic

Spinning is an ancient textile art in which plant, animal or synthetic fibers are twisted together to form yarn (or thread, rope, or cable). For thousands of years, fiber was spun by hand using simple tools, the spindle and distaff. Only in the High Middle Ages did the spinning wheel increase the output of individual spinners, and mass-production only arose in the 18th century with the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution.

The Old Spinning Wheel

In the textile mills, hundreds of workers would operate machines such as this. The factories were hot, dusty and incredibly noisy. Working on these machines was dangerous

Modern powered spinning, originally done by water or steam power but now done by electricity, is vastly faster than hand-spinning.

Colorful Cross-stitched Fabric Tote Bag

Melody button metal alloy

This colorful cross stitch fabric Tote Bag is the perfect size for carrying everything you need.A magnetic snap closure with a zippered inner pocket to keep your keys from falling to the bottom.This bag is big.It will hold everything.It is made from hilltribe cross stitched fabric from Chiangmai,Thailand.

Chiang Mai has a large and famous nightly bazaar for arts, handicrafts, and counterfeit products of all descriptions, and a number of large, well-appointed modern shopping centres. The night bazaar alone sprawls along several city blocks along sidewalks, inside buildings, and in open squares. In addition a handicraft and food market is held every Sunday evening on Rachadamnoen road (the main street in the historical center) which is then closed down for motorised traffic, attracting many local residents and tourists.

And don't forget to check out Chiangmai's famous silk industry. Many fine garments, such as shirts, blouse, skirts and suits can be tailor-made for you at exceptionally reasonable prices. So, give yourself a treat and feel the sensual luxury of a Thai silk garment around you.

Sunday, February 15, 2009

The Surprising Knitting Machine by Dave Cole

The Knitting Machine is Dave Cole's performance art piece that uses construction equipment and 20-foot long knitting needles to construct large-scale objects. Starting June 30th and throughout the weekend, the artist use a pair of John Deere excavators to hold the needles and a Genie to wrap the yarn, creating an oversize American flag at MASS MoCA. The flag is folded military-style, housed in a diplay case about the size of a Volkswagen Bug, and become part of an exhibit in the museum along with other work by Cole.


Reproduction Medieval Spindles

A spindle (sometimes called a drop spindle) is a wooden spike weighted at one end with a circular whorl; it may have an optional hook at either end of the spike. It is used for spinning wool and other fibers into thread.

For centuries, the spindle played a role in producing thread and yarn. It is still a tool used in parts of the world today. The form and function of the spindle is basically the same everywhere. It has a very simple design consisting of a shaft and a weight. The materials used to make the spindle in the past consisted of whatever was readily available at the time. The majority of the spindles available, today, have wooden shafts with a wooden disc as the whorl (weight). The type of yarn you want to produce, and the type of fiber being used determine choosing the type of spindle to use.

Thursday, February 12, 2009

Indian Textile - Patola Saree

Fantastic patterns and colors !

India has a rich and ancient heritage in fine textiles. (Double Ikat) Patola from the area of Patan in the North Gujarat region of western India glorifies this heritage. With its unique gem like qualities-gorgeous colours, designs and durability. Its very appearance lures the connoisseur of fine textiles. It has no reverse side. Both the sides have equal intensity of color and design.

Fine Worked Textile Panel

Squares divided into fourths and satin stitched with floss....great colors!

This panel, likely a table runner, measures about 3' and 24" wide. It took 100 hours to complete. Bits of fabric are appliqued with a couching stitch. The light panel is inserted into the burlap backing. It's edge detail with great stitching for strength and contrast.

Antique sewing machine

An old Sewing Machine found in the historic Ghost Town of Garnet, Montana

Antique Pfaff sewing machine (Back side)
And how old about this sewing machine ??....Before 1892 ??

Hand sewing is an art form that is over 20,000 years old. The first sewing needles were made of bones or animal horns and the first thread was made of animal sinew. Iron needles were invented in the 14th century. The first eyed needles appeared in the 15th century.

The first possible patent connected to mechanical sewing was a 1755 British patent issued to German, Charles Weisenthal. Weisenthal was issued a patent for a needle that was designed for a machine, however, the patent did not describe the rest of the machine if one existed.

Tuesday, February 10, 2009

Quilting Machine

Gorgeous quilt - and neat machine too
For many quilters, machine quilting is a way to quilt those tops that seem to go together faster than they can be hand quilted. For others, machine quilting is a means of self expression. Machine quilting can range from an almost invisible stitch outlining the quilt blocks to a combination of threads and stitches creating a one of a kind work of art and everything in beween.

"Machine Quilting is the process of using a home sewing machine or a Longarm machine to sew the layers together. With the home sewing machine the layers are tacked together before quilting. This involves laying the top, batting and backing out on a flat surface and either pinning (using large safety pins) or tacking the layers together. Longarm Quilting involves placing the layers to be quilted on a special frame. The frame has bars on which the layers are rolled, keeping these together without the need for basting or pinning. These frames are used with a professional sewing machine mounted on a platform. The platform rides along tracks so that the machine can be moved across the layers on the frame. A Longarm machine is moved across the fabric. In contrast, the fabric is moved through a home sewing machine." -- Quoted from Wiki

Circular Loom

In a circular loom having a machine frame, a lower and an upper running race arranged in said machine frame for guiding the shuttle, the running rollers of the shuttle are fitted between guiding surfaces of the upper and lower running race. To avoid contacting between the running rollers of the shuttle and the warp threads, the running races have thread guiding grooves crossing the guiding surfaces. The thread guiding grooves, in the running direction of the shuttle, are arranged to be inclined by an acute angle relative to the radial direction laid at the middle axis of the machine.

There are mainly two series of circular loom: 4-shuttle circular loom and 6-shuttlehigh-speed small-sized circular loom, the lay-flat width ranges from 35 to 140cm,which is applicable for the making of rice bag, flour bag, fertilizer bag,fodder bag and cement bag etc. These circular looms have the advantages of high production efficiency, low noise,economical power consumption, easy operation and maintenance, and using tapesmade from recycled materials.

Monday, February 9, 2009

Indian Textile

India has a diverse and rich textile tradition. The origin of Indian textiles can be traced to the Indus valley civilization. The people of this civilization used homespun cotton for weaving their garments. Excavations at Harappa and Mohen -jo-Daro, have unearthed household items like needles made of bone and spindles made of wood, amply suggesting that homespun cotton was used to make garments. Fragments of woven cotton have also been found from these sites.

The first literary information about textiles in India can be found in the Rigveda, which refers to weaving. The ancient Indian epics-Ramayana and Mahabharat also speak of a variety of fabrics of those times. The Ramayana refers to the rich styles worn by the aristocracy on one hand and the simple clothes worn by the commoners and ascetics. Ample evidence on the ancient textiles of India can also be obtained from the various sculptures belonging to Mauryan and Gupta age as well as from ancient Buddhist scripts and murals (Ajanta caves). Legend has it that when Amrapali, a courtesan from the kingdom of Vaishali met Gautam Buddha, she wore a richly woven semi transparent sari, which speaks volumes of the technical achievement of the ancient Indian weaver. India had numerous trade links with the outside world and Indian textiles were popular in the ancient world. Indian silk was popular in Rome in the early centuries of the Christian era. Hoards of fragments of cotton material originating from Gujarat have been found in the Egyptian tombs at Fostat, belonging to 5th century A.D. Cotton textiles were also exported to China during the heydays of the silk route. Silk fabrics from south India were exported to Indonesia during the 13th century. India also exported printed cotton fabrics or chintz, to European countries and the Far East before the coming of the Europeans to India. The British East India Company also traded in Indian cotton and silk fabrics, which included the famous Dacca muslins.Muslins from Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were also popular abroad.(Muslin-a very thin cotton material) (Chintz-cotton cloth, usually printed with flowery patterns, that has a slightly shiny appearance). The past traditions of the textile and handlooms can still be seen amongst the motifs, patterns, designs, and the old techniques of weaving, still employed by the weavers.

Chinese Draw Loom--da huo lou ji

Two people are required to operate a draw loom

The thread puller

The weaver

This kind of Chinese draw loom is the highest achievements in ancient China, it's Chinese name is da hua lou ji.

The famous Nanjing Yun brocade is woven on this traditional Dahualou draw-loom, 5.6 m long. It is 1.4 m wide and 4 m high, through the coordinated manual operation of a thread puller and a weaver. This draw loom is made up of 1,924 parts. The thread puller sits on top of the loom and lifts the warp while the weaver, sitting under it, weaves the weft with gold and colored threads.

The thread puller pulls the thread according to a threading sequence, in a similar way to computer keyboard typing. The weaver applies his skill of "passing longitude and cutting woof" -- the woof consisting of connected fine colored filaments. He twines the materials and weaves the pattern into brocade of golden and colored threads. The woven piece of work before him could be regarded as his computer screen. No machine has yet been devised to replace this manual technique, yet thread puller and weaver are able to produce no more than a 5-6-cm length in one day.

other loom: Vertical Loom , Circular Loom,